1. 1

    Recognise and stop the prescribing cascade

  2. 3

    Avoid using a higher dose than is necessary for the patient to optimise the 'benefit-to-risk' ratio and achieve the patient's therapeutic goals

  3. 4

    Stop medicines when no further benefit will be achieved or the potential harms outweigh the potential benefits for the individual patient   

  4. 5

    Reduce use of multiple concurrent therapeutics (hyper-polypharmacy)